How to Restore iPhone via iTunes on Computer
Let’s start by creating an iOS recovery document. Without him, as already mentioned, it will not be possible to implement the task.
First of all, a person must install “iTunes” on the computer. It is desirable that the version of the application is the latest. Old builds of the program are no longer supported. Accordingly, the owner of the device will not be able to fulfill the task.
Only licensed iOS can be restored. And the absence of a 100% backup of user data leads to a factory reset. And since then, it will not be possible to return the information. Only if there is a copy in iCloud.
Let’s start with an iOS backup. Without it, as I wrote earlier, it will not be possible to restore the previous data.
First of all, we check if iTunes is installed on the computer, if not, then download from here and watch the installation video from here.
If iTunes after launch asks for an update, then we agree and update. After that, we start creating a copy of the data.
When thinking about restoring an iPhone, a user should from Honor that there are several options for the development of events. And you will first have to make a backup copy of the information. Without this, it will not work to bring the idea to life.
In general, among the methods of recovery through iTunes, there are:
- return to factory settings;
- recovery of user data.
In fact, everything is simpler than it seems. But if a person created a copy of their data using iCloud, then iTunes will not help restore them. This is normal and important to take into account before taking action.
Now let’s talk about how to return the phone to factory settings.
This is the easiest way to get your iPhone back to normal. In this case, a complete reset of the data to the factory occurs. This does not save any user data. iTunes really allows you to return devices to their original settings.
- Launch iTunes. We connect the iphone via a USB cable.
- Synchronizing with a mobile phone.
- Go to the “General” tab.
- In the right part of the window, select the “Restore iPhone” button and click on it.
- When requested, we pass authorization using AppleID (it does not always re-request).
- We carefully study the pop-up window with a warning of the consequences of actions and if everything is ok then we agree with the operation.
Create a backup
Following are the steps to create a backup. You need to know that all copy data will be saved on the PC in the BackUp folder.
- Download the latest version of iTunes on your computer and install it (if it was not previously installed).
- We connect the phone using USB to a PC or laptop.
- Launching the application.
- Click trust this computer.
- We are waiting for synchronization.
- We pass authorization in AppleID (in total, you can log in only on 4 computers).
- Open the “General” tab in the left menu of the program.
- In the right part of the window, click on the button “Create a copy”.
- We are waiting for a few minutes.
After all these steps, a copy with Iphone data will appear on the computer. And now you can start restoring the OS.
IPhone recovery via iTunes instruction
Today we have to figure out how to restore “iPhone” through “iTunes“. This is not a difficult task. Especially if the process is carried out correctly. Each owner of an “apple” device will be able to return certain data to a mobile device in a few minutes. This is quite normal.
From now on, it is clear how to restore “iPhone” through “iTunes”. All of these techniques work on all Apple devices. Therefore, operations can also be performed on tablets. There is nothing difficult or incomprehensible in this. All actions will be the same.
iTunes is a free service that every iPhone owner should be able to use. It helps not only to create backup copies of data, but also restores device settings. Also, this program can come in handy when downloading music and photos to iPhone.
Sometimes they use the iMazing app to recover information on mobile devices. This is a free program that is somewhat similar to iTunes. With its help, you can create a data backup that is recognized by the application under study. But such a technique is rarely used in practice. Therefore, to restore information on the phone, it is better to follow one of the instructions previously presented to your attention. How to restore “iPhone” through “iTunes”? The task is no longer a hassle!
Today we are going to take a look at several ways to restore iPhone via iTunes. After reading this manual, every Iphone owner will be able to restore data on a mobile device in a few minutes. So let’s start.
How to put iPhone 8 into recovery mode?
IPhone 8 or later: Press and quickly release the Volume Up button. Press and quickly release the volume down button. Then press and hold the side button until the recovery mode screen appears.
How to Unlock iPhone 7 via iTunes?
Recovery Mode to Unlock iPhone if Forgot Password
- Turn off your phone.
- Connect it to your computer.
- Select Recovery Mode from the menu that appears.
- Turn on iTunes, click OK and then “Restore iPhone”.
- If a message appears about auto-checking for updates, click on the “check” button.
How to put iPhone 11 into DFU mode?
How to enter DFU mode on an iPhone with a physical home button
- We connect the smartphone to the computer using a cable.
- Turn off iPhone.
- When the screen goes out, hold down the power button for 3 seconds.
- Hold down the Home button, while continuing to hold down the power button.
How to enter DFU mode on iPhone 7?
Connect your device to your computer and launch iTunes. Turn off your iPhone. To do this, you need to hold down the screen lock button and swipe to the right of the shutdown slider that appears. Hold down the Power and Volume (-) buttons and hold them for 10 seconds.
How to unlock iPhone via iTunes?
While holding the Home button, connect iPhone to iTunes. If iPhone does not turn on automatically, turn it on manually while holding the Home button. Continue holding the Home button until the Connect to iTunes screen appears. ITunes will inform you that it has found a device in recovery mode.
How to Connect iPhone 7 to iTunes?
Press and quickly release the volume down button. Press and hold the side button until the Apple logo appears. IPhone 7, iPhone 7 Plus, and iPod touch (7th generation): Press and hold the Side (or Top) and Volume Down buttons until the Apple logo appears.
Is it possible to recover and update firmware jailbroken
When restoring via iTunes, you will receive a notification that the program will not be able to transfer purchased applications. That is, only those applications that were purchased through the App Store will be restored.
Restore via iTunes
For this method, you need iTunes installed on your computer. You can download it from the official Apple website for Windows and Mac OS.
Once the application is installed on your PC, do the following:
How to update device firmware
There are two ways to update the firmware version: via settings and Wi-Fi or using iTunes and USB cable.
Features of iPhone, iPad and iPod touch firmware
Device firmware is the operating system by which a phone or tablet performs all of its standard functions. In other words, the firmware is the foundation, the software content that makes the device work.
Recovery via device settings and Wi-Fi
Follow these steps to restore:
- Connect your device to any stable Wi-Fi network.
How to restore and update the firmware of iPhone, iPad, iPod touch
If this is your first time encountering a problem with your device’s firmware, don’t panic. IPhone, iPad, iPod touch users have the ability to restore or update the firmware on their own. This can be done in several ways: both through the settings of the device itself, and using a computer and a USB cable. Let’s take a closer look at these methods.
The firmware can also be restored. The need for this arises in the event that the device has stopped working, faced with an unknown error.
There are two recovery options:
- simple recovery, in which all settings, installed programs and downloaded contents of the device will be reset to factory settings (that is, only the standard set of programs will remain on the device, everything else will be deleted);
- restore from a backup, which will roll back the firmware to the moment when the backup was last created or updated (this will leave all personal data, installed applications and user-downloaded content on the device).
Description of iPhone recovery methods
Many owners of modern gadgets are interested in how to restore iPhone via iTunes. This process consists of two stages:
- Factory reset (to a clean state).
- Restoring user data from backup storage.
- IPhone recovery via iTunes is available only for the official and current firmware version (requires a subscription from Apple). For example, a smartphone user with iOS 4.2.1, which has long been decommissioned and out of service, will not be able to initiate a rollback through the service. The application will throw a critical error.
- Relevant for people with a locked iPhone. When the firmware is updated, the version of the modem will probably be updated as well. For such smartphones, before starting the recovery, it is better to use the Redsn0w utility.
- If the user has not prepared a backup copy of the system in advance, then it will have to be restored in one step. the phone will return to factory settings. All files and parameters will be lost.
Important! After familiarizing yourself with the nuances of the procedure, you can proceed to the very restoration of the smartphone via iTunes.
How long does it take to restore iPhone via iTunes
The wait can take from 10 minutes to several hours. As mentioned above, it all depends on the volume of files and the quality of the Internet connection.
IOS version for recovery
Before restoring iPhone se, you still need to determine which version of the system is suitable for the phone and make preparations. The bottom line is that by developing new iOS “stamps”, the company stops signing old assemblies. Rollback and recovery on them is no longer possible.
You can determine which version of the system a user can recover to using the IPSW service. Going to the site, you need to select the iPhone model (it works for other devices of the company). The firmware, which will be marked with check marks, is provided for recovery. On the same site, you can download the firmware to perform the rollback itself.
IPhone Recovery via iTunes
The smartphone will have to be connected to a personal computer or laptop with Internet access. the device needs to download all the latest updates. Only then the program starts. IPhone Recovery via iTunes:
- In the program, open the “Overview” section, click on the line “Restore iPhone”.
- A window will open asking you to confirm the action. All the consequences of the procedure are described here. this is the complete removal of files and any information from the phone.
After agreeing to the terms, a long rollback process will begin. This can take 5 to 25 minutes. Immediately after the end of the restoration, the iPhone will reboot with the factory settings. data loss is possible if you reset everything.
Restoring iPhone through the created backup
After a factory reset, the phone starts working completely empty. there are no old user files in it. You can restore iPhone via iTunes using the created backup. Algorithm for the correct process:
- Open iTunes, connect your smartphone to your computer and put your phone into recovery mode iPhone, iPad.
- Go to the files section and open the context menu using the CtrlB keyboard shortcut.
- In the menu, select the item “Restore files from backup” and click on it.
Important! After user confirmation, uploading data from the cloud will start.
Recovery via Mac PC with macOS Catalina 10.15:
- Open a Finder window.
- Connect your phone to your computer using a USB cable. If you are prompted to enter a password for the system or select a computer as trusted, you will have to follow the instructions on the display. If the password cannot be remembered, then you need to revive it through technical support.
- Select a device (in this case iPhone) when it appears in the program window.
- Click on “Restore from copy”. A message may appear stating that the software is too old.
- View the creation date of each copy and choose the one that works best.
- Click on “Restore” and wait for the end of the process. You may be prompted to enter a password for the encrypted version of the backup. you will have to enter it to access.
- Do not turn off the smartphone after restarting and wait while it syncs with the PC. Once the iPhone is paired, you can disconnect.
Important! If you have problems restoring or accessing the required backups, for example, if you accidentally lock your phone, we recommend that you contact Apple Support.
How to restore iPhone via iTunes. detailed instructions
An unsuccessful update or flashing can lead to the “death” of the phone. In such a situation, there is nothing to be afraid of. just start the device in recovery mode. ITunes app lets you return iPhone to backup settings or factory settings.
How to restore iPhone without a computer
You can reinstall the system without the help of a PC. Algorithm:
To complete the procedure, it is recommended not to break the connection and regularly connect to the network and power source.
Recovering the device without changing the operating system version
1) First, you need to download the firmware version that you are currently using.
As part of this material, we will not give you links to sites from which you can download firmware, but you can find them yourself, without spending even 5 minutes.
2) After you download the required firmware version, you can proceed to the recovery procedure.
You will need to complete all the steps from the above steps, after which, during the start of the recovery procedure after opening the “Overview” menu on the keyboard, hold down the Shift key and click on the “Restore iPad” (“Restore iPhone“) button.
3) After that, the system file manager will open, in which you will need to specify the path to the firmware that you downloaded. Actually, after that, the recovery procedure will start.
On average, recovery takes about half an hour. After the procedure is completed, you will be offered two options. either boot the system from a backup, or configure the device as new.
We will not describe further actions, since the instructions in the iTunes program will be clear to any user.
Flashing iPhone via iTunes
As we said earlier, within the framework of this material, we will analyze the procedures for changing the device firmware using the iTunes toolkit. But first, let’s figure out what we need in order for the procedure to be successful.
Step 1. Turn Off Find My (Find My iPhone / Find My iPad)
You will not be able to reflash your iPhone if Find iPhone is enabled on it. The reason for this is very simple and understandable. this is one of the security measures to prevent an attacker from gaining access to the device.
Actually, that is why the first thing we need to do to flash the device is to deactivate the “Locator” function. To do this, you need to do the following.
1) To get started, open the “Settings” window and at the top of it, click on the name of your account in the Apple ID system.
2) Next, in the next tab, switch to the “iCloud” section.
Important! On devices that run on a system with iOS 13 and lower, the Find iPhone / Find iPad tool has been renamed, so now it is called Find My.
Also, on devices with this version of the operating system, the path to deactivating this function looks different. you need to switch to the section “Your Apple ID account name”, then to “Find My”, then to “Find iPhone” (“Find iPad”).
Actually, after that you just turn off this function and you can proceed to the next step.
Step 3. flashing the smartphone
So, all the preparatory procedures are completed, the most important thing remains. to reflash the smartphone. To do this, you need to do the following:
1) In the “Overview” section, click on the “Restore iPad” button (“Restore iPhone”).
Please note that if you use this method, the current version of the firmware and operating system will be installed on your smartphone, respectively.
In case you want to use a different version of the operating system, then you will need to perform several other steps.
How to Restore iPhone via iTunes
Hello everyone! With the help of the “iTunes” utility you can restore your IPhone or any other gadget from the “Apple” corporation. This is done by installing a new firmware, which in fact returns your device to the “only from the assembly line” state. So, within the framework of this material, we will analyze the iTunes recovery procedure in as much detail as possible using the tools from the iTunes program.
What you need to start the recovery procedure
The list of devices that we need to restore a smartphone is relatively small and very obvious. It:
Computer on which the current version of “iTunes” is installed.
USB cable that came with the device.
Step 2. Connecting the smartphone to the computer and copying the system
1) Connect the phone to the computer using the original cable from the kit and open the program “iTunes”.
After the smartphone is recognized by the system and the program, respectively, click on the smartphone icon that appears in the corner.
2) After that, switch to the “Overview” tab.
Actually, this tab contains many tools for managing the gadget, but we need the item “Create a copy now”.
You will be offered a choice of two options for saving a backup. to local computer media or to cloud storage.
Choose the one that suits you and move on to the next step.
How to Roll Back Cellular to Factory Settings via iTunes
If a customer wants to know how to properly restore their iPhone via iTunes, they need to have an original wire. Avoid using the cheap cord that is usually used to charge the device. The fact is that such a connection is not reliable, which can lead to a failure in the process of deleting data. If the client needs to roll back to factory settings, he can follow this scheme:
- the iTunes application is launched on the stationary computer;
- a field for entering a username and password will appear on the screen;
- as soon as the connection between the program and the phone is established, the smartphone icon will appear on the screen;
- a device is selected in the program window;
- then the menu will be highlighted, in it you should click on the “Browse” item;
- now the “Restore gadget” section is selected;
- the application will ask the client to confirm its action;
- when the owner clicks the “Restore” button again, all data will be reset.
After that, the download of the new version of iOS to the smartphone will begin. In this way, the client can rollback from the operating system that was loaded last.
- If the procedure was completed successfully, but the smartphone does not respond to the owner’s actions, it should be restarted. After a forced reboot, the cell phone should be fully functional again. If this does not happen, it is recommended that you contact Apple Technical Department.
You can also use the special DFU mode. This option is used when the gadget does not function in “Recovery Mode”. DFU is typically used by clients when system errors occur. With this method, the user can remove all settings from the gadget, even in the most difficult situations. To put your phone into DFU mode, you must follow these instructions:
- cellular is connected to a stationary computer with a cord;
- then the client needs to click on the “Power” and “Home” buttons;
- hold the keys for at least 10 seconds;
- when the specified time has elapsed, you can release the “Power” button;
- while the “Home” key must be pressed;
As soon as the gadget switches to the required mode, the program will display a notification about this. A message will appear on the screen that the smartphone is in recovery mode. Now the user must reset the installed settings in order to continue using the gadget.
What happens if the client rolls back the OS version
To begin with, the owner must know that after completing the procedure, all data from the phone will be deleted. There will be no photos, videos and other information on the gadget. For this reason, it is recommended that you create a backup. As soon as the procedure is completed, the client will receive a “clean” smartphone. All personal profile data will also be deleted. The password set on the iPhone is automatically deleted. After performing the rollback, you can install the version of iOS that the owner requires.
How to restore iPhone via iTunes
Restoring data on a smartphone is the procedure for returning a gadget to its factory settings. If the customer has installed new firmware and the iPhone does not function well, you can simply return the cell phone to its previous settings. The owner needs to know how to restore iPhone via iTunes. Also, the client will be interested in when this operation is necessary.
How to Backup & Restore iPhone using iTunes [UPDATED!] 2020
When to Reset Using iTunes
User may need to restore iPhone via iTunes application from computer if he wants to transfer all data to another device. Also, the procedure is necessary to delete the current password on the cell phone, if the client has forgotten it. The procedure is performed before the sale of the gadget to erase all data, photos, videos and contacts from it. If some of the contact numbers have been deleted, you can use iTunes to return them back to your cell phone. But the client should remember that an Apple application cannot always help with the problem.
- If the owner decided to flash the gadget, but there was a failure in the system, he can return the old version through the program. When the failure is not resolved by recovery, you will need to contact the firm’s customer support department for help.
How to properly prepare the device for the procedure
Before performing iPhone restore via iTunes, user must turn off Find iPhone function. If the option is active, then it will be impossible to perform a full reset or OS rollback. Therefore, before using the application, you should deactivate the search service. The operation is performed according to the following scheme:
- a section with smartphone settings opens on the smartphone;
- at the top of the screen, the username will be written, you need to click on it;
- a new window will display a section titled “Aycloud”;
- after clicking on this item, the owner must select the “Find iPhone” gadget search function from the list;
- all that remains is to move the slider to the “Deactivated” position;
- for the action to be performed, the password for the account is specified.
Once the procedure is complete, the owner proceeds to the second part of the preparation. It includes creating a copy of the data from the gadget. Such an operation is necessary if the client wants to recreate all the information from the smartphone. To do this, the client must follow these instructions:
- a cell phone is connected to a stationary computer using a cable;
- on a PC, you need to run iTunes, having previously updated it to the latest version;
- a smartphone icon will appear in the window, click on it;
- the client will be in the cell phone control menu;
- the “Overview” item is selected on the screen;
- you need to select a copy storage option, the system offers to save data in the cloud or on a computer;
- it is necessary to indicate the option that is more suitable;
- the button “Create a copy now” is pressed.
After that, the procedure for creating a backup copy will begin. When the operation is completed, you can continue the operation to restore the smartphone.
What errors can the user face?
Before rolling back an iPhone through iTunes, the owner of the smartphone should find out what problems he may encounter in the process. The most common situations are:
- Synchronization between PC and smartphone is not established. Usually the problem is that the versions of the gadget and iTunes do not match. In this case, it is recommended that you update the application on your computer to the latest version. Do the same with a smartphone. If the device is not displayed correctly, you will have to reinstall the drivers.
- Problems creating a backup. This is common when rolling back a program. The owner cannot access the created duplicate. In this case, you should check the size of the created file. If your internet connection is slow and the copy size is large, you may experience a disconnect.
- Broken port. If the program does not see the gadget, the problem may be a broken or clogged port. You should first clean it and then reconnect the phone. If this does not help, you should use a different entrance.
- Non-original cable. When a cheap cord is used, the connection may not be established correctly. Usually, the cable just charges the device, but does not display it in the program. In this case, you can fix the situation by purchasing an original Lightning cord.
In some cases, the problem is that there is not enough memory on the computer. You should try rebooting both devices. If this does not help, you will have to clear some of the space on your PC’s hard drive.
To restore your smartphone using iTunes, you first need to deactivate Find My iPhone. The data is then backed up. Only when the preparation is complete can you rollback.
IPhone firmware and how to reflash a smartphone via iTunes
In order for the smartphone to work, an operating system is installed on it. Also, Apple is constantly releasing updated software versions in which bugs have been eliminated. But there are situations when a client needs to reinstall the firmware on his device. You need to figure out when such a procedure is required and how to flash the iPhone yourself through iTunes.
When you need to download new firmware to your cell phone
You may need to flash an iPhone through iTunes on a computer in several situations:
- The operating system has crashed. When a serious error occurs in the software, the smartphone fails. To use the gadget again, you need to flash the device.
- A new software version has been released. The company has fixed problems and bugs in the old firmware. Also, the new operating system adds features and additional applications. Minor bugs and crashes fixed.
- Updating software for installing applications. Some programs may not work on older software versions. A firmware update is required for games or applications to work without bugs.
- An iPhone user can install a new version of the software for free through the settings section on the phone.
What is firmware for a smartphone, why is it necessary for a cell phone
The update allows you to eliminate those bugs that were identified earlier in the system. The user will have access to new operations. He will also have access to applications that cannot function on older versions of the software. To give the iPhone more built-in features, the company is releasing new operating systems. They fixed bugs and added functionality. There are three types of firmware that are available for smartphones:
- official, it can be used by all customers, the download is free through the settings of the smartphone or iTunes;
- beta version, it can only be used by those who have a developer certificate;
- custom firmware is available to some customers, to download it, you need to have PWNage Tools and Sn0wbreeze programs, it is not officially distributed.
Usually, the installation of new firmware is required in order to unlock the iPhone and be able to use the smartphone with any mobile operator. This applies to older versions of cell phones. Also, in this way, the gadget is restored if it was blocked due to an incorrect password.
How to flash using iTunes
IPhone firmware via iTunes allows you to restore your phone to work. To download a new software version to your phone, you need to follow these instructions:
- the cell phone is connected to the equipment on which iTunes is installed, it can be a laptop or a stationary PC;
- the connection must be made with the original cord;
- then the owner should launch the iTunes application on his computer, if the launch process did not start automatically;
- when the utility and the gadget are synchronizing, the smartphone icon will be displayed on the screen, you need to click on it;
- after that, the user presses the “Shift” key and selects the “Restore” button on the screen;
- a file with firmware will appear on the computer, which was previously downloaded to the stationary PC;
- the file must be in the “IPSW” format;
- if the software is not found, the system will inform the client about it by notification;
- in order for the process of updating the system to begin, you must give your permission for the procedure;
- then there will be an automatic download of the firmware to the cell phone.
- During the installation process, the utility will delete all data from the cell phone. After the operation is completed, there will be no information on the smartphone. All settings will be reset to factory defaults. For this reason, it is recommended that you create a backup beforehand.
Also, the firmware can be installed via a Wi-Fi network. This procedure is called by users “By Air” installation. If an iOS update is already available on your smartphone, you can complete the process without a computer. To install, follow these instructions:
- first you need to go to the section with cell phone settings;
- then the item “Basic” is selected on the screen;
- now the client will need the section “Software update” from the list;
- the process of searching for new firmware versions will start on the screen;
- if there are new proposals, they will appear on the display;
- then the owner will have to click the “Download and install” item;
- when the procedure is completed, the new software will be installed on the smartphone.
It is possible to install a new firmware in DFU mode. This method is necessary if recovery via Recovery Mode is not possible. The mode is used in case of serious failures in the smartphone system. It is usually used if the cell phone does not turn on. DFU allows you to reset all installed settings. To enter this mode, the user must perform the following actions:
- the cell phone is connected to the computer using the original cable;
- then on the iPhone, press the “Power” and “Home” buttons at the same time;
- it takes about ten seconds to hold the combination;
- when the required time has elapsed, the “Power” key is first released;
- the “Home” button must be held down.
Not all users can immediately enter this mode, since there are no changes on the display. To understand that the phone has entered the desired mode, you should look at the iTunes program window. As soon as the procedure is completed, a message about the found device in recovery mode will appear on the screen.
Additionally, the firmware is performed through the recovery mode. The procedure is performed according to the following scheme:
- the smartphone turns off, then the Home button is pressed and the cell phone is connected to the PC;
- then you need to start the iTunes program, it must determine the cell, then click “OK”;
- now you should select the item “Restore iPhone”;
- the item is pressed while holding the “Shift” button;
- after that, the file manager will be displayed on the screen;
- the required firmware is selected.
Then iTunes will perform all the steps automatically. When the procedure is completed, you can turn on your phone.
What is iPhone firmware
Before you install new software through a computer, you need to find out what kind of firmware methods there are. Today you can use two methods:
- Recovery. This method is used when the client cannot use the smartphone due to a failure. Cell phone won’t turn on or freezes constantly. In this case, the client can independently reflash the iPhone via iTunes. For the operation to be successful, the owner must have access to a stationary computer, as well as to an already downloaded operating system.
- Software Update. The installed operating system is changed to a new version that is offered to the user. The updated iOS will fix bugs and add new functionality. The update is performed through iTunes. Also, the operation can be carried out “by air”.
- Before starting the installation process, it is recommended that you prepare your cell phone for the procedure. First, you should make a backup copy of all data from the gadget. If the installation process is disrupted, all information will be lost. Backup will allow you to restore parameters and files.
How to flash a locked smartphone
To do this, use the Tenorshare 4u Key unlock tool. The procedure is performed like this:
- the phone is connected to the PC, the utility is launched;
- then the item “Start” is selected on the screen;
- you must first download the firmware for your smartphone;
- to start recovery, press the “Open Now” button;
- in 10-15 minutes the smartphone will be restored.
After completing the procedure, you can turn on your cell phone and use it again. All data from the gadget will be deleted.
Flashing a gadget via iTunes is not difficult. Also, the user can use third-party programs to restore his smartphone. The easiest way to install a new software version is through the section with phone settings.